Psychological and physiological in stress changes.
When a person is in stress, stress leads to psychological and physiological changes. These changes are not normal.
1. Psychological changes : Disruptions are clearly visible in this type of physiological changes; in this we include two types of Psychological changes.
- A. Cognitive impairment or responses :: 1. Lack of attention 2. Lack of concentration 3. Poor perception 4. Distractibility 5. Tension 6. weak memory 7. alertness
- * After cognitive impairment aggressive people become more aggressive.
- * They become more rigid
- * A person who is more aggressive reacts with more aggression in case of stress.
- B. Emotional responses /impairment :: In stress, person emotion response is not normal or does not remain normal
- * this responses would differ from normal person
Show negative emotional responses :
1. Anxiety : When a person is in stressful situation his first emotional response is anxiety. He feel fear, doubt and difficulties.
2. Anger and aggression : when a person is in stress, he is not able to achieve his goals. it leads to frustration, anger and aggression.
3. Empathy and depression : when a person face stress for long time and he is not able to resolve the stress then emotional responses like empathy and depression get developed in the person.
2. Physiological changes : : Stress does not only leads to psychological changes but also the physiological changes example abnormal heart beat, changes in breathing system, stomach system. .
- 1. Emergency responses
- 2. General adaptation syndrome (GAS):
- A. Stage of alarm reaction : When a person is surrounded by circumstances which develop stress then the changes which happens in the body of a person is called alarm reaction. There is two sub phases in the process of changes :
- 1. Shock Phase : In this phase the person experience following symptoms , low body temperature, low heartbeat and low BP.
- 2. Counter Phase : Counter shock phase comes after shock phase and has these symptoms such as high body temperature, high heartbeat and high blood pressure (these symptoms helps the person in recovering from stress.
Stage of resistance : The presence of stressors excites hypothalamus and it release corticotropin hormone which increase ACTH in the blood. increase of ACTH in blood increases the resistance level as well. it leads to increase in the stress facing capability of a person.
Stage of exhaustion : In this situation the person lose the capability to respond and become inactive for example a person suffering from stress is prone to peptic ulcer, high BP, low BP and diabetes.
Categories of stress
1. Stressful life events : In the course of life a person faces pleasant and unpleasant situation. He must learn to adjust with this situation. If he fail to adjust he will suffer from stress. Stress induced in a person is a subjective thing. The same situation may lead to different level of stress in different persons. The person who has psychological hardiness does not feel stress in more stressing situation than vice versa.
2. Conflict of motives : when there is a conflict between motives it leads to stress for example if a student wants first division in his class but he fails then he feel stress
3. Daily Hassles : There is a many small problems in our daily life which create stress such as :
- (a) Environmental hassles : loud voice (Crime, Noise)
- (b) Household hassles : Making food, washing cloth etc
- (c) Inner concern hassles: feeling of separation (Fight someone)
- (d) Hassles due to lack of time
- (e)Hassles arising due to financial responsibility
- (f) Work hassles: job dissatisfaction, unmanaged work stress
4. Stress produced by work : There are some factor in the work of a person which induces stress. If an employee is asked to do a lot of work in a limited time it naturally increase the stress level.
5. Environmental sources: environment is also responsible for stress example earthquake, thunder etc.
Strategies for coping :: Stress
1. Problem focused coping strategies : In this strategies the person evaluate the stressful situation and use the strategy that either changes the situation or stay away from the situation
- A. Control strategy : when a person succeed to overcome the stressful situation it will also decrease the stress level
- B. Prediction strategy : In this strategy stress is predicted before stressful situation. As a result the person become capable of facing the situation in real life.
2. Emotion focused coping strategies : In this strategy individual concentrate on emotional response person does not change the situation but try to reduce anxiety developed due to stress
- A . Behavioural strategy : in this strategy the individual to do some particular activity to reduce stress such as drink and smoke.
- B. Cognitive measure : in this the person changes the meaning of the situation and use defence mechanism.
Management of stress
- 1. Progressive muscle relaxation
- 2. Centering and coping self statements
- 3. Time management
- 4. Aerobic exercising
- 5. Laugh lots and maintain your sense of humour
- 6. Environmental approach : 1. Structural social support, 2. Functional social support
Techniques for adjusting stress
The first step in the effective adjustment to stress is to identify the kinds of stressors that affect you everyday depending upon the source of stress. The best coping strategy maybe to attack the source of the problem.
A. Progressive muscle relaxation
The technique of progressive relaxation involves alternately tensing and relaxing various muscle groups while attending closely to the sensations you are feeling when your muscles are tensed versus when they are relaxed. You learn to become sensitive to the relaxed state of your muscles in contrast to the state of tension.
- If you practice the relaxation exercise you will become proficient at being able to relax in a matter of few seconds
- On the other hand, suggest that it takes from 6 to 12 weeks of practice to become really proficient at successfully using P.M.R in high stress situations. At a minimum, we recommend that you start out by listening to the relaxation tape and practicing the exercise just before going to sleep on at least 5 successive nights.
- PMR can improve insomnia
- Muscle relaxation exercise to be an effective way to combat the anxiety you might feel variety of stressful situations such as having to give a talk in class , writing an exam or perhaps going for a job interview just before entering such stressful situations listen and practice to the tape.
- It help you cope with stress, mastery of muscle relaxation techniques is a recommended component to deal with a variety of problem.
- In particular, it is recommended as a useful component of procedure to treat arthritic pain, tension, headaches, migraines, teeth grinding insomnia, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, neck and back pain, high blood pressure, mild phobias stuttering and hypertension.
Centering and coping self statements
- Centering is a martial arts procedure that emphasizes thought control, a particular way of breathing and muscle relaxation
- Centering a breathing technique that help you to relax and eliminate problem thoughts; breathing low down in the abdomen so that the abdomen extends when inhaling and collapses when exhaling.
- Centering is an effective thought stopping procedure. While you are concentrating on centering you are not likely to be continuing with irrational thoughts. The second part of the procedure involves thinking specific coping self statements to counteract problem thoughts example instead of thinking.
'Now I am going to be late for my meeting my whole day will be ruined'.
Rational self talk
Rational emotive therapy to help people identify irrational ideas or belief and replace them with realistic statement about the world.
I. Useful suggestions to identify stressful irrational self talk.
Do you find yourself frequently saying such things as the following :
- 1. I must be perfect at everything and I do
- 2. I am such a klutz
- 3. Why do I always screw things up
- 4. Why does the worst always happens to me.
If you frequently find yourself thinking generalizations such as these then practicing centering and coping self statements might be very useful for you.
II. Effective coping self statement
III. Aerobic exercising
- There is no sense in worrying, worrying never helps anything
- One step at a time. I know I can handle this one step at a time
- I will concentrate on what I can do to be successful
- Everybody gets a little nervous once in a while but I have ways to manage it
IV. Time management
- Aerobic exercises include rapid walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, racquetball,
- Activities that you participate in for at least 15-20 minutes continuously at each session for 3 or 4 exercise sessions per week.
- Aerobic exercise causes you to breathe deeper and harder and increases the ability of your body to use oxygen efficiently
- Meditative relaxation exercise as a way of coping with stress reduces anxiety.
- Exercise can help control some of the physical symptoms of stress by lowering blood pressure and strengthening the heart.
- Individual remain calmer and more relaxed.
- Aerobic fitness can help combat the effect of stress.
- Individual who participate in aerobic exercising at the end of a very stressful day report that the exercising helps them to dissipate the tension that they felt during the day and to feel more relaxed during the evening.
Time management is important part of personal adjustment in everyday life. It is also an effective stress management strategy.
V. Laugh lots and maintain your sense of humour
- The symptoms of poor time management such as chronic late arrival for meetings, rushing between meetings, constantly missing deadlines, frequent indecision about alternative courses of action, chronic shifting from one unfinished task to another and feelings of dissatisfaction, lack of accomplishment.
- It is no wonder that poor time managers feel harried, frustrated and continually under stress.
- Good time management is an effective way of dealing with stress.
- Regularly practice the time management principles of identifying priorities, scheduling same time each day to perform high priority tasks and minimizing time wasters.
VI. Environmental approach :
- When you exercise you increase your physiological arousal
- Use humour as a strategy for dealing with stress in childhood
- People who have a sense of humour and laugh easily are less disturb by stressful life events
It prepare an individual to adjust with environment. In this social approach support play important role:
A. Structural social support : In this social network and numbers of friends matters
B. Functional social support : in this the quality in relation is important.
for example, if the person get any problem his friends will help him.