Major depressive disorder has lifetime prevalence of about 15 % and it is more common in women and about 50% of cases are of age group 20 to 50 years.
A significant genetic factor is involved in development of a mood disorder. Psychological factors involved in development of depression are stress, obsessive and borderline personality. Biogenic amines especially Norepinephrine and serotonin down-regulation are associated with depression. Problems with sleeping like insomnia or hypersomnia are classic symptoms of depression.
A significant genetic factor is also involved in the development of a mood disorder. The stressful life events like losing a parent or spouse, unemployment results in long-lasting changes in brain’s biology and as a result, a person has high risk of subsequent episodes of mood disorder.
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Mood disorders tend to have long courses and patients tend to have relapses
Anxiety is a common symptom of depression and affects almost 90% of all depressed patients. Abnormal menses and decreased interest in sexual activities are also associated with depression.
Treatment of depression involves 3- goals : - patient safety, diagnostic evaluation and a treatment plan.